1.1 Earth's Crust in Motion


Geologists: scientists who study the forces that make and shape the earth
Geology: the study of planet Earth
constructive forces: forces that build up landmasses like mountains
destructive forces: forces that slowly wear away mountains and surface such as what an ocean does
continents: seven large landmasses on earth
seismic waves: waves that move through the Earth's interior
pressure: force pushing on a surface or area
crust: layer of rock that makes up the Earth's outer skin
basalt: dark, dense rock that forms the oceanic crust
granite: rock with larger crystals that is less dense than basalt and makes up the continental crust
mantle: layer of hot rock below the crust
lithosphere: means "stone" and is the mantle and crust together
asthenosphere: means "weak" soft rock material that can flow slowly
outer core: layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core
inner core: dense ball of solid metal


Science of Geology

  • studying surface changes
    • surface always changing
  • finding indirect evidence
    • cannot see inside earth
    • use seismic waves
      • speed of waves tells the material

Center of the Earth

  • temperature
    • surface rock is cool
    • 20 meters/warmer
    • every 40 meters 1 degree celsius hotter
      • temperature increased
  • pressure
    • deeper you go the greater the pressure

The crust

  • continental
    • granite
      • light colored rock
  • oceanic
    • basalt

The mantle

The core

Earth's magnetic field

AUFCseafloor.jpg KHKZIBGearthint.jpg