2.3 Earthquake Hazards and Safety


Vocabulary


Liquefaction: it occurs when an earthquake's shaking turns soil into watery mud
Aftershock: an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
Tsunamis: a giant wave that is caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
Base-isolated building: a building made to decrease the amount of energy that reaches the building during an earthquake

Outline


How Earthquakes Cause Damage

  • earthquakes can cause a lot of damage
    • landslides
    • avalanches
    • tsunamis

Local soil conditions

    • solid rock shakes less
    • sandy soil shakes more

Liquefaction

    • can cause landslides
      • the 1964 Anchorage earthquake

Aftershocks

  • an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
    • can happen hours, days, or months later

Tsunamis

  • a giant wave that is caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
    • waves can be between 100 to 200 kilometers long
    • can be as tall as a six-story building

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Making Buildings Safer

  • most people get injured or die from buildings
    • must make stronger and safer building

Choice of Location

  • Do not live near or on
    • steep slopes
      • can cause landslides during earthquakes
    • filled land
      • can shake dangerously during earthquakes
    • earthquake faults
      • will also shake very dangerously during earthquakes

Construction Methods

  • base-isolated buildings
    • a building made to decrease the amount of energy that reaches the building during an earthquake

Protecting Yourself During and Earthquake

  • hide under a strong table or desk
    • hold on to it so it doesn't move
  • if there isn't any table or desk sit against an inner wall
    • cover your head and neck with arms
  • if you are outside go to an open area
    • playground
  • have an earthquake kit always prepared


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